The theare was constructed in 1791 by Francescal on plans by Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart. The inauguration on 16 August; known as the Théâtre de Louvois or Théâtre de la rue de Louvois, under the direction of Michel-André Delomel. Between 1794 and 1804 received the names Théâtre des Amis de la Patrie, Théâtre Français de la rue de Louvois, Théâtre d’Émulation, Théâtre des Troubadours and Théâtre de l’Impératrice. Also during these years, the theatre was used by the company of the Théâtre de l’Odeón several times.
From July 1804 the company of the Théâtre-Italien performed in the Théâtre Louvois, until 1808, when the Louvois is closed by Napoleon, and the company of the Théâtre-Italien moves to the Théâtre de L’Odeón. During this early period the Théâtre-Italien first presented opera buffa by Domenico Cimarosa and Giovanni Paisiello, later adding those by Ferdinando Paër and Simone Mayr. The theatre commissioned Valentino Fioravanti’s I virtuosi ambulanti, first presented on 26 September 1807. Of the several Mozart operas first presented in Italian in Paris by the company, Le Nozze di Figaro would have its first at the Théâtre Louvois in 1807.
In Diciember 1807 the theatre was acquired by the state for use by the Paris Opéra as rehearsal space and for concerts, including some by the Concerts Spirituels.
After closing by order of Napoléon in 1808, it serves as storage room for the Opéra, at that time performing in the Théâtre des Arts located just across the rue de Louvois from the Salle Louvois; communication between the two buildings was via an iron bridge over the rue Louvois. Between 1811 and 1812 an annex is constructed for the storage of scenery.
In 1819, the company Théâtre-Italien comes back to the Louvois, until 1925. Between 1819 and 1825 the company presented at the Louvois several of their Paris premiers of Rossini operas: Il barbiere di Siviglia (26 October 1819), Torvaldo e Dorliska (21 November 1820), Otello (5 June 1821), and Tancredi (23 April 1822). But not all of them were perfromred at the Louvois, with only accomomodated 1100 spectactors: his operas were so popular, that some of his Paris premieres were given at the larger Salle Le Peletier, including La gazza ladra (18 September 1821), Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra (10 March 1822), Mosè in Egitto (20 October 1822), and La donna del lago (7 September 1824, produced under Rossini's supervision).
Rossini himself had come to Paris by 1 August 1824 and became director of the Théâtre-Italien on 1 December 1824. He revived eight of his earlier works, including Il barbiere di Siviglia and Tancredi. His last Italian opera, Il viaggio a Reims, was premiered by the company on 19 June 1825 but was not a success. He also produced the first opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer to be performed in Paris, Il crociato in Egitto, on 25 September 1825. On 12 November 1825 the company moved from the Salle Louvois to the refurbished first Salle Favart.
In 1825 the Théâtre Louvois closes. Two years later, by 1827, the order is issued to remove all stored scenery for the sale of the theatre, but it´s not until 1899 that the theatre is demolished.